tv Balfour Seeds Of Discord Al Jazeera November 2, 2017 4:00am-5:01am AST
one hundred and fifty volunteers working for several walking buses teaching is working has improved the volunteers also and. the consequence of. that just doesn't go away. out of this trip for the last couple years. he's homeless. follows a group of u.s. army veterans traumatized by war. as they struggle to get their lives back shelter at this time. hello again adrian finnegan here in doha the top stories on al-jazeera u.s. prosecutors have charged a man with terrorism related crimes after the new york attack police say that eight people were killed when immigrants a photo of stared
a pickup truck into cyclists and pedestrians he was shot by police at the scene and in the past few years appeared in court in a wheelchair kristen salumi has the latest from new york. the complaint filed in federal court in manhattan list two charges against twenty nine year old side follow side they include providing material support to a terrorist organization i saw and using a vehicle to cause the death of pedestrians we know now from the court documents and from the prosecutor that sipar the waived his right to self a criminal self incrimination agreeing to talk with investigators from his hospital bed where he is recovering from surgery and gunshot wounds to his abdomen he told investigators that he did in fact gain inspiration from eisel and they found thousands of eisel videos on his cell phone he also said that he chose hollowing to
conduct this attack because he knew that there would be more people out on the streets right behind me here that's where that attack took place and it's still closed down in part for investigation now acting attorney acting u.s. attorney june kim says that he had been planning this attack for months so a pov allegedly admitted that he was inspired to commit the attack by the isis videos he watched and had been planning this attack for two months he also admitted that he had rented a truck on october twenty second in practice to practice the turns he would make. on his halloween. time now authorities have also located a second man who they are describing as a person of interest his name is mohamed. he is also an uzbek national he was taken into custody shortly after authorities announced that they were looking for him they have him in their custody but they say that they are
interested in learning more from the public if the public has any information about either of these two men or any information about what happened on that day they're asked to come forward and share it as a result of the attack president onil trump says he plans to end the diversity visa lottery the suspects use the program to enter legally in the u.s. in twenty ten vigils been held in the argentinian city of result for the victims of the attack five argentinians were among those killed they travel to new york to celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of their school graduation they were all from rosario the city's declared three days of mourning. the u.k.'s defense minister has quit following a growing scandal over sexual harassment at westminster michael fallon says his behavior may have fallen short of the standards expected he's been accused of improper conduct towards a journalist fifteen years ago. iran's supreme leader ayatollah ali harmony has
told russia's president vladimir putin they must step up cooperation to isolate the u.s. and to help stabilize the middle east the call follows a threat by u.s. president donald trump to abandon the iran nuclear deal another two thousand range a minority of muslims have crossed into bangladesh fleeing what the u.n. has called ethnic cleansing in myanmar the latest arrivals in a mass exodus of ranger more than six hundred thousand people have fled me and rakhine state since august this year. they've been violent protests in eritrea's capital which an opposition group says were triggered by government attempts to close a muslim school in a small area the red sea democratic organization says that at least twenty eight people were killed and more than one hundred others were injured although these figures can't be independently verified saudi arabia says that it's investigating an air strike in yemen as northern sada province which killed at least twenty six
thanks thanks thanks thanks. thanks thanks. thanks thanks. thanks thanks thanks. thanks for the voice of david ben-gurion declaring the establishment of the state of israel in maine one nine hundred forty eight. the balfour declaration was a letter sent by british foreign secretary arthur balfour to
a member of the british house of lords child on the second of november one thousand nine hundred seventeen. this letter sent to a leading figure in the british jewish community one hundred years ago had repercussions which even its authors cannot have imagined. whatever its real intentions it went on to have a profound impact on the middle east and its people. and its effects still resonates across the region today. in one nine hundred fourteen these soldiers were fighting on the battlefields of europe in the first world war the allies britain france and russia fought the
central powers of germany austria-hungary and the ottoman empire for four years but the land and sea war was not the only battleground. muscle was also being flexed behind closed doors as allies conspired to redraw maps to their own advantage when the conflict eventually ceased. sir mark sykes for the british and french. for the french plotted how to divide the arab lands of the ottoman empire assuming it would finally fall. the agreement to divide it into french and british spheres of influence france taking most of the levant southern anatolia and the area while the british extended their control over the southern levant expanding eastward. and all the land between there
be and. i think the british felt that there had not been enough government involvement in concluding the states because agreement with the french and the process they had not really protected their interests well enough for a post world war era in which the british empire would continue to seek to be a dominant force in european affairs and so really officials across whitehall including mark sykes himself felt it was a bad deal. and . my own. well.
and look at the before and it's of huge significance that when they're making these discussions. are not discussed jews were not to feature in the. middle east which was to be based on the idea of the arab nation. zionism was the movement supporting the reestablishment of a jewish homeland in the area defined as the historic land of israel. the movement was active in early twentieth century london especially because of the persecution of jews in russia and eastern europe. theodore heard so had found a design a movement in the late one nine hundred century but jewish people in western europe had not rushed to support it because they were integrating quite successfully into society zionists believed that all jews should someday returned to. that country one of the problems was that palestine belong to the ottoman empire and the ottoman
empire was not clear that it wanted massive jewish immigration into palestine and the british government offered to let jews move unimpeded in great numbers into uganda if they wished. but in any event it really didn't happen and it didn't happen because a majority of scientists felt that hurtful was selling them out and that the only place for jews to move back to least conscious zionist jews to move back to was palestine in this i think britain began to look on the zionist movement as a possible partner in justifying a read a go she asians are their agreement with the french you see for britain simply to claim territory against what they'd already concluded in the green that with france could create diplomatic problems for the british but if they were to make a claim to palestine not out of self interest but in order to advance
a great historic ideal of the restoration of the jewish people to the legal homeland that this could justify an adjustment of the terms of the sites because. in a way that the french would accept the british wanted somehow and more and more increasingly they felt that the jews held the key to winning the war. and so they had to figure out how to bribe the jews to support them. sir mark sykes had succeeded in drawing the line he wanted from acre in the west to kirkuk in the east but for some in government this was not enough. the british were using the jewish national movement to secure palestine for themselves is this is what highlights been is really good. defiant to open ears of ten downing street in the foreign office in the colonial office and it's paving the
way towards that critical decision in november of one nine hundred seventeen as i think you can direct you can draw a direct connection between britain's sudden acknowledgement of zionism is an idea at an ideal. and what they were dissatisfied with in the term the psychs because. i am fight for men was a chemistry lecturer in manchester who had become a prominent member of the british zionist movement he was politically well connected and rubbed shoulders with senior figures in government so high in vitamin was russian by birth he was a chemist. and then he joined the zionist movement. he climbed in the zionist movement he moved to great britain before the war well before the war maybe ten
years before the war began he was not before the war very well known in the english zionist movement he was pretty well known in the world zionist federation but he was by no means the most visible zionist when world war one began in great britain. vitamin later wrote in his memoirs about having been introduced to a british government minister herbert samuel. samuel was jewish but vitamine was apparently concerned that he might be anti zionist. however herbert samual turned out to be extremely receptive to vitamin and went on to write an official memo in one nine hundred fifty setting out a number of different possibilities for palestine and the jewish people. and was. so. health minister. for.
us who were caught up with the qur'an philosophy in. latin have been alamy. who were. only markers. on the cut up with the kyra. sure but there's still a philosophy in badminton tell how to help them a lot and then let them a lot and hope to see a. really funny year for last year. but then you suddenly have the leader who the commonwealth. but he didn't find willing ears in whitehall or the colonial office for schemes that involved the establishment of a jewish state in palestine britain was really concerned with two things by the
time that the first world war had broken out they want to do with the war first and foremost this was an imperative for the survival of britain and its empire and secondly they wanted to ensure that coming out of the war victorious that their empire would benefit from the victory so at this stage high invites and herbert samuels ideas about the rights of the jews to resettle in palestine. did not find much sympathy in the corridors of power in london. disappointed fights men wrote to a friend asking whether there wasn't at least a discussion to be had about what he called the chance for the jewish people. i realize of course he went on we cannot claim anything we are much too atomized for it's. what they did do however was to throw together fights man the russian jewish immigrants searching for a homeland and refuge from persecution with her brood samuel and lord rothschild
for members of the british jewish elite established in society and part of the political and capitalist class. so it isn't for the most part of course all of the community was actually in the minority but certainly most of all within the jewish elite because it threatened the notion of them as one hundred percent committed members of british society and this was complete and that for somebody like you to become secretary of state for india for him zionism is his worst nightmare the idea that jews are not satisfied simply with being citizens of britain or other countries around the world they're always longing to go back to the land of israel for him he wanted to demonstrate that the jews of britain were first and foremost british it's important to remember
that for people like rothschild design isn't actually been a threat you see the elite in british jewellery had fought for generations to gain acceptance in british society it was only with the arrival of disraeli in the one thousand century that jews entered parliament and could rise to become prime minister and the poor people of. high finance or banking interests the really lete of the jewish community in britain their struggle to demonstrate their place in british society that zionism with its claims that jews were a people apart and should be a nationalist movement of their own right or another with their early lamba the army. and even a corrupt. how to get. hold. of but i would be when i
had the time meant get fifty i wouldn't actually be the old the field but i would be everyman german general call up you and i do have a sheer will and no illness or even a bit of time even for my head a brand of beer and damaeus of blush who will of us out the head if mark you have to say you know you well it's an x. vitamin vien sure in much of the love in your mind doesn't need a mental ability. keep delaying the instability. of the. vitamin. the fim. it's vitamin that makes the difference and i think he was probably unique in his ability to persuade the leading british figures that the jews were in fact a vast sub to raney and influence which they were not. that all jews were zionists
which was far from the truth and that therefore the key to winning jewish support was to offer them palestine vitamine talked up the degree to which the jewish community supported zionism in order to get his message across to the governments. but for the british it seemed to be about self interest about winning the war recognizing zionism would be closely linked to gaining global juice the poor it put this objective on which would start its future arresting so the british motives for supporting zionism when we can boil it down to two elements of british self interest at that time not an emotional interest inside ism or a love of jews and the jewish plight and the desire for a return of the jews to the holy land no for very specific self interest matters of
policy they were first of all all of the british government agreed that they wanted to mobilize behind britain and the allies this idea of jewish power in the world. they were like all of the different policy elites in the war believe this in the notion that jews have tremendous influence in the corridors of power around the globe if the british government appeared to support zionism they would win over. to their side and all that entailed the british were convinced that zionism was really at the center of the jewish home. in maine one nine hundred sixteen sir mark sykes had agreed his to quit deal with the french psychs because he would form the basis of the future carve up of the old ottoman empire. so he immediately turned his attention to palestine still part of the ottoman empire and how to use dynasty
ambitions to outmaneuver the french. formal contact between the british government and the zionist followed he immediately phoned herbert samuel and told him about the plan and herbert samuel then phoned him vitamin and vitamin brought with him sokolow this meeting took place on the eleventh of april one thousand nine hundred seen it took place at moses castors house in maida vale. and gaster wrote in his diary afterwards how proud he was that this meeting which he thought was the most important meeting that had ever taken place in the history of zionism had taken place at his house. mark sykes. she doesn't know my gust of llano were kind of. the best but then.
i was one who really. thought that north who were. the most disgusted very quickly understands that sykes is looking to gain support from suppose it jewish power in the world and gets to works with this idea and manipulates this to consolidate sykes's interest in science and we see actually the british government becomes very close already in nazi sixteen of issuing a public declaration of support for zionism there in the end this doesn't happen that year the planned psychs got herbert samual to pass on to the zionist leaders involved joint british french administration of palestine and a charter guaranteeing british support for the line of them. but his idea was rejected. they didn't want an anglo-french condominium in palestine they wanted the british to protect them not
the french and that's because they thought that the french always sort of converted their colonized people into becoming frenchmen and what they wanted was to remain as self conscious jews and they thought that the british would leave them alone and let them do that and how much she helped to live in begun by. her the share a blue team. over a vial him one in the basement what you need convincing got armor you did doesn't go to not you needed them it would get done because the who you deem know you to name him remember bomb atom our matter. robert. you know. is. bolstered by their newfound credibility the british zionists thought
about making specific demands after the sykes meeting but events overtook them. on the sixth of december one thousand nine hundred sixty british prime minister asquith resigned. in the change of government arthur balfour became foreign secretary under prime minister david lloyd george. lloyd george. as the half away from us back to a summit with iraq. and i'll. tell you what that you know. one. side but. it's a completely if you could. kind of thing.
was of rather philosophical bent. and i think he wanted to think in theological terms you wanted to think in historical terms. and it was with that frame of mind i think that he approached the whole question yesterday at the flower. sorry. and my harsh. as it was i thought george. but the attack. before. david lloyd george. balfour and all of those who supported the powerful declaration
within the british government we can absolutely categorize as being riven with anti semitic thinking and not only that but the thinking behind the balfour declaration that drove them to the balfour declaration was from this anti semitic thought the idea of jewish power of jewish he said this and of a unified jewish attachment to zionism above all else. whatever its basis the relationship between the british dynasty and the government would continue to grow throughout the one nine hundred seventeen. leading to the declaration that would change the face of the middle east and ultimately determine the destinies of two different peoples.
in colombia transforming urban waste into building blocks of years just two percent of the west blasted the war and finished their house in charlotte as you know that america in just ten years and in singapore fredricka farms and living building anything you do on land on the ground doesn't make sense to do that on a building now can we make of not just decorative that can we might have biologically productive earthrise discovers cutting edge to dish and for sustainable city at this time on al-jazeera i mean this is different not just whether someone is going to read this but i mean it's from i think it's how you approach a vigil and i think it is a certain way of doing it you can't just buy a story in the out. everything you do is being analyzed it's being weighed and it's being measured that's what intelligence agencies are they are tossed to do things in secret that are
a lawful or politically embarrassing all of the colleagues that i knew chose to retire from the n.s.a. they could not stand by and see all the work that they had done being used for mass surveillance digital dissidents at this time on al-jazeera. al-jazeera. where ever you. hello again everyone from going to here in doha the top stories on al-jazeera u.s. prosecutors have charged a man with terrorism related crimes after the new york attack police say that eight people were killed when it was back immigrant safe of state
a pick up truck into cyclists and pedestrians he was shot by police at the scene and in the past few hours has appeared in court in a wheelchair prosecutors say that the suspects had been planning the attack for weeks. say part allegedly admitted that he was inspired to commit the attack by the isis videos he watched and had been planning this attack for two months he also admitted that he had rented a truck on october twenty second in practice to practice the turns he would make. on his halloween that halloween day attack in response to the attack u.s. president donald trump says he plans to end the diversity visa lottery suspect to use the program to legally enter the u.s. in twenty ten. vigils under way in the argentinian city of result for the victims of tuesday's truck attack five argentinians were among those killed they travel to new york to celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of their school graduation they
were all from rosario the city's declared three days of mourning the u.k.'s defense minister has quit following a growing scandal over sexual harassment at westminster michael fallon says his behavior may have fallen short of the standards expected he's been accused of improper conduct towards a journalist fifteen years ago. iran's supreme leader ayatollah ali harmony has told russia's president vladimir putin that they must step up cooperation to isolate the u.s. and help stabilize the middle east the call follows a threat by u.s. president donald trump to abandon the iran nuclear deal another two thousand range of minority muslims have crossed into bangladesh fleeing what the u.n. has called ethnic cleansing in myanmar the latest arrivals in a mass exodus of ranger more than six hundred thousand people have fled the announcer kind state since august and we're getting reports of a shooting in colorado police in suburban denver say that multiple parties are down
there are seeking people to stay away from the area we'll bring you more as and when we get it on that breaking story here on. i'll be back with a news hour a little over twenty five minutes with more details on that but now let's get you back to al-jazeera world. the first world war britain france and russia against germany austria hungary and the ottoman empire the british in the shape of the diplomats or mark sykes were determined to divide autumn and territory in a way that best suited them once the war was over for their own strategic interests . by nine hundred seventeen the war was shifting in the allies favor and in the
middle east the british were moving through sinai towards the borders of historic palestine. further north the russian revolution in february one nine hundred seventeen cast doubt on russia's continued involvement in the war. as britain and france tried to outmaneuver one another the british zionist movement took on increasing political importance. get back in touch with scientists and think about. incorporates elitism in british planning for palestine and at this moment we see a hugely important meeting taking place in the home of moses guesstimated in february seventeenth and this is the point in which sykes mates for the first time. and the. another time in this in which it's discussed what the zionists are looking for and the british interest in zionism so
he had to bring the zionists along without divulging what were the secret agreements that britain and france had come to with regard to palestine which was that they would jointly administer parts of palestine at this meeting for the british government was sykes and herbert samuel he was there on the other side there were. vitamin and sokolow and there was moses gaster and he brought a couple of his allies because he realised that vitamin was beginning to push him out of the way the other very important figure was james rothschild who attended this meeting. at the meeting it became clear to sykes that vitamin not gaster was the most important zionist this is also the moment where
moses cast is dislodged. sykes is part of the french side because i haven't liked guest guster been insistent that should be a jewish state and nothing less coming into being after the war and pick up clearly wanted saudis who were much more willing to compromise with the interests of the great powers and the viceroy was certainly happy to fit that bill. the meetings between the zionists and the government seemed to give momentum to the idea of british support for a jewish homeland in palestine and their potential role in its administration. but the secrets like agreements between britain and france which formed the basis of the future division of the ottoman empire planned to put palestine under international administration any change would have to be negotiated with france.
niamh socolow of emerged as the man to talk to the french and the whole. story. she he. became the acknowledged lead diplomat for zionism and all the accounts say that he had an extremely sort of elegant bearing and wore very fine clothing and that his manners were polished and polite and smooth silky smooth so that he could talk. on an equal basis with the representatives of the german kaiser or the. british government or whatever so the day after the meeting. between sykes and the zionist leaders
sykes brought socolow to meet the french diplomat pekoe what sikes wanted was for sokolow to a persuade pekoe that zionism must be taken seriously that zionism really was the key to winning the war. and that there's a giant ists would only help the allies win the war if britain was the main power in palestine not france for two i got it because i didn't put it that good on may well if you cared more so called offered up on our quadrant walk watch our put out for that core i reckon i could do yes you really don't like you which i don't like but it's you and also mossad. there's not
a kid of say course a record of that they are home but not on their degree of me tell you we but i read them and psych snuff saw in a circle of you know what a tabloid any a no no our friends are or your mother had this you can associate my moral and british cabinet or that often all the station a friend so we have been were at before. bill cabin at the english or look and not already different so we into a lot of cities it's hard to know how much influence psychs ultimately had over british policy making he was given more prominence in british policy making around the middle east during the war years than he ever deserved he was a relatively ill educated inexperienced man whose only connection to the art of the world had been as a tourist. so for this man to be playing such a role in the halls of power over deciding british policy towards the near east
seems to us today to be anomalous indeed ridiculous. regardless of psych's role things continue to progress for the zionists and in june one nine hundred seventeen british foreign secretary arthur balfour asked high in vitamin to present his demands as a declaration and promise to try and persuade his government to adopt at. the leading zionist form the political committee and drafted their demands and then submitted them to the british government. this original document was one of the first drafts written at the imperial hotel in london on the seventeenth of july one thousand nine hundred seventeen. it also introduced a new term and concept the national home of the jewish people so in the initial zionist drafting of the declaration. there were protests most
scientists leaders to not one cycle of that there's no mention of the terminology of the jewish state that instead they're talking about a national home. this is. what the size trying to achieve and so response was that we mustn't go too far we have to take small steps we have to go with what is acceptable to the british government at this time and then slowly slowly we can advance our course once we have this in hand. if you had a corrupt. knowledge you had been could be. certain . that. on the eighteenth of september one thousand nine hundred seventeen there was
a meeting of the british war cabinet the foreign secretary arthur balfour was absent. the secretary of state for india edwin montague who was jewish strongly disagreed with the declaration he was opposed to zionism and said i deny that palestine is today associated with the jews or properly be regarded as a fit place for them to live montague thought a french to clear ration for porting zionism in june one nine hundred seventeen was anti semitic and negotiated changes to the british version as it went through several drafts. so you got a battle. you are going to. live here with.
your hood. she will. see if you're. gonna. be. the well. a few days later secretary of state for war by counts moaner and the jewish politician philip magnus sent a modified version to the cabinet it incorporated some of montague's changes. including the caviar that quote nothing shall be done that might prejudice the rights and political status enjoyed by such jews who are fully contented with their existing nationality and citizenship.
drafting especially by a board millner the by september was closer to the language that would eventually be adopted in november of one nine hundred seventeen namely speaking not about power stein as a whole. but. some sort of presence in palestine on behalf of the jews which is quite different cannot kill kill me for it how money for. nothing. only their national. a literary if. their and look at all and national. but not their national home and i would not the national. what i'm calling the
fearful of the in. the committed zionists wanted to ensure the declaration was clear that the whole of historic palestine would be a national homeland exclusively for the jewish people. the latest draft was sent to hire. in turn center to the zionist movement in the united states for their feedback. there was some consultation during the summer of one thousand nine hundred seventeen with the united states and the early drafts that. had the imprint of the zionist elements in britain would have referred to palestine in its entirety as being for sort of jewish and b. and those elements eventually were modified before the drafting was
finalized another key part of the terminology that emerged out of the drafting was in some british redrafting where sort of for the jewish people it was written the jewish race i've mentioned this was taken out but i think it's very revealing that british officials wanted to use this kind of terminology because after all this was how they understood the jews of the world as being a racial group one tremendous power and also could be inspired all together as one behind the cause of zionism supported by britain and the allies it's striking that the existing arab people in the region were not named at all they're simply called the quote existing non jewish communities in palestine. but. so yeah we have a little idea but that usually the man for the secret is a hot ticket milty the community nor free the owners sheepmen but the law is
obviously not we've concluded was he we just if you you know bother the party kick . by october of one nine hundred seventeen the final draft of the balfour declaration was ready and waiting only british government final approval. there was a rumor that germany was about to issue a similar declaration supporting the rights of the jews in palestine when balfour heard he rushed to get his final draft discussed at the cabinets meeting on the thirty first of october one thousand nine hundred nineteen. so when we think about the centenary of the balfour declaration everyone considers second of november nineteenth seventeen as the moment of the day creation itself but it was actually
agreed to by the british cabinet on the thirty first of october and this was a hugely significant meeting and in the minutes of that meeting balfour reiterate the principle reasons for supporting zionism and highlights its expected propaganda effects amongst jews around the world particularly in the united states and in russia the argument was was put forward most wrongly by lord balfour at the meeting of october thirty first and what he argued was that issuing this declaration would be extremely helpful for the british in sillett of flying the support of the united states and also in countering propaganda from germany the critical thing to remember about british diplomatic pronouncements is that what one individual says does not represent the views of the government as a whole and you will find many different points of view among british officials in
the years one thousand seven hundred one thousand eight hundred and right into the early years of the mandate but the british were very clear that they had not promised statehood to the zionist movement they had no interest in doing so the british did not support jewish nationalism they did not support arab nationalism they supported british imperialism but this is also the meeting where lord curzon. there's a member of the walk up and it disquiet about the possible effects of supporting zionism on the palestinian population and the palestinian opposition is completely disregarded lord curzon wrote a paper to the cabinet asking what was quote to become of the people of this country. there were over half a million syrian arabs a mixed community with arab hebrew canaanite greek egyptian and possibly crusaders blood they and their forefathers of occupied the country for the best part of one
thousand five hundred years they own the soil they profess the mohammedan faith they will not be content either to be exposed for jewish immigrants or to act merely as he was of wood and drawers of water to the latter. but his prescient remarks fell on deaf ears it's like to tell high bites at the end of the workout that it's meeting dr it's a boy and so they witnessed the birth of an agreement to create a jewish national home as a baby in the middle east. the final draft of the balfour declaration was sixty seven words long. his majesty's government view with favor the establishment in palestine of a national home for the jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object it being clearly understood that nothing
shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non jewish communities in palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by jews in any other country. i should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the zionist federation you all sincerely james bond photo. in terms of international law it really has very little standing in international law you know treaties between nations have significance. but governments often issue policy statements statements of intention about what they plan to do and those really don't have any standing as as a matter of of law for britain this was. i suppose you would say
a statement of its intention as to what it would do if it were to take over palestine which of course it had not yet done as of november one thousand nine hundred seventeen that's going to go right to one of them you don't gotta let me stuff you could she. come in should have been done yeah if. you could be so because your minds were shot down who taught them a love of god don't you show you off your lawyer any. two years after the declaration a church leader in jerusalem wrote to british prime minister lloyd george about jews in palestine trying to control holy sites. lloyd george's office had said that high invites men didn't want to do anything affecting the rights of arabs it said he simply wanted to be involved in a council to help provide refuge to jews fleeing russia and eastern europe. this
exchange suggested that britain felt it had not promised a jewish state but simply a place for them to live alongside arabs. when the league of nations set out the british mandate in palestine in one nine hundred twenty three it made britain responsible for implementing the balfour declaration. as a result jewish immigration to palestine increased as did arab opposition to it expressed in a series of palestinian protests against britain in the one nine hundred twenty s. they understood the people of palestine to be muslims and christians but did not emerge that they would constitute a national community that would seek national independence and after the war very quickly when it becomes clear that palestinian arab nationalists and mobilizing against zionism. the british government a quick to see a major problem the balfour declaration had put in train
a series of events that began to signal its deep flaws. arab descent built to the three year revolts between one nine hundred thirty six one thousand nine hundred thirty nine it was a nationalist uprising against the british administration demanding arab independence and the end of jewish immigration it was in the pill commission of one nine hundred thirty seven that the british first recognized that instead of balancing communities they had set in motion a rivalry between incompatible national movements jewish and palestinian arabs. and it was at that point that they tried to solve the problem by dividing palestine into two states arab and jewish through a partition plan and i think there you have the first recognition or admission from british officials of the failure of the balfour declaration. in may nine hundred thirty nine the british government published a policy document on palestine called a white paper it's abandoned the partitioning of palestine into two states and
called instead for an independent palestine in which arabs and jews would share government it limited jewish immigration to seventy five thousand for five years and said that the arab majority should determine future immigration levels it's also said that balfour had not meant to create a jewish state at the expense of the arabs any more than the mcmahon his stay in correspondence twenty four years before had promised an arab state to shareef hossain of mecca but the white paper met opposition and was dropped. the british government a quick to see a major problem but there's no way that they can back away from support for zionism because this becomes the basis for their justification for being in the holy land their commitment to supporting the movement in the balfour declaration which becomes in shrines in international law in the terms of the mandate for palestine.
so the british stuck with zionism they didn't believe that scientists wanted independent jewish state hood and after the war became very clear that actually the past majority of scientists didn't only want statehood they expected it. i think if we're trying to assess whether or not britain's policy towards zionism in the first world war served british interests or not the first thing we have to appreciate is the key reason they supported saw it was based on an incorrect idea they believed that they could mobilize something they saw a jewish power around the world behind their loud course so first of all that was entirely wrong and didn't happen because the jewish power is fake its force. in september one nine hundred thirty nine german expansionism led to the second world war over sixty million people died including between five and six million
jews the majority in nazi concentration camps. the british mandate ended at midnight on the fourteenth of may one nine hundred forty eight and immediately the formation of the state of israel was announced justified by the terms of the balfour declaration issued thirty one years before. while israelis celebrated the birth of their nation seven hundred thousand palestinians were forced into camps and exile the family done a lot of. with your need to overcome we don't know they're coming. for palestinians the balfour declaration represents the moment an imperial power promised their land the way to another people. is the best weather out there which was. they hold bell for responsible for their
york state will show the first proper significant fall as you can see this last bit is near buffalo now it stopped snowing after the most part temperatures are slowly rising and you can see that chicago is a tad interoffice at thirteen but the blue shade is there to dakotas back towards montana and i think i'll stay that way for the next day or so it's really cold in calgary down to minus ten minus two in winnipeg and then this contrast the say. a double figures the other way round so it took positives thirteen to fifteen chicago to draw on to ask for the weather well but a cloud maybe snow kept on the canadian side of the border still a lot of start in b.c. british columbia on notice it just comes over the border here otherwise it's quiet looking weather and it's gone remarkably warm again twenty nine in dallas not the eastern side of the u.s. twenty's once more twenty four in washington twenty one in new york and given the time of year thirteen in toronto eleven in with the rain it will be a little bit unusual but that's how we sit for the next day or so.
and monday pointed well on the. u.s. and british companies have announced the biggest discovery of natural gas in west africa but what to do with these untapped natural resources is already a source of heated debate nothing much has changed they still spend most of their days looking forward to from dry river beds like this one five years on the syrians still feel battered or even those who managed to escape their country haven't truly been able to escape the war. this is al-jazeera.